- World Drug Report 2004, published by UN Office on Drugs and Crime. The first volume covers market trends and provides in-depth trend analysis, and the second volume compiles detailed statistics on all of the drug markets. Together they provide the most complete picture yet of the international drug problem.
- The UN Office on Drugs and Crime website offers you the three major International Drug Control Conventions as well as monthly status of treaty adherence. In addition, drug control related resolutions and decisions adopted by the United Nations General Assembly, its Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and the Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) is also featured.
|Afghanistan: An Opium economy and its effect on the population
- CIA World Fact Book: Afghanistan
- International Conflict Research (INCORE), Country Guide on Afghanistan includes listings of media, NGO resources among others.
- In Human Rights Watch World Report 2004: Human Rights and armed conflict, you will find the report “Losing the peace in Afghanistan” that highlights the situation in Afghanistan after the war.
- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2003), “The Opium Economy in Afghanistan – an International Problem” examines Afghanistan’s opium economy, explaining its dynamics, the reason for its success, its beneficiaries and victims, and the problems it has caused domestically and abroad.
- Transnational Institute Briefing Series 2001/2, Drugs and Conflict Debate Paper no. 3, Nov 2001 “Merging Wars: Afghanistan, Drugs and Terrorism” . This Debate paper studies the two drug wars in Afghanistan and Colombia and the interventions made by UNODC.
- Rubin, Barnett R. “The Political Economy of War and Peace in Afghanistan” June, 1999, highlights the 20-year old Afghan conflict has created an open war economy, affecting Afghanistan and surrounding areas.
- Goodhand, Jonathan, “From Holy War to Opium War: a Case Study of the Opium Economy in North Eastern Afghanistan”, Peace building and Complex Emergencies, Working Paper Series, Paper No. 5, IDPM, University of Manchester, 1999. Examines factors behind the recent growth in the opium economy in North Eastern Afghanistan.
- Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbelt (GTZ), Drugs and Development Programme, September, 2003. "Drugs and Conflict” is a discussion Paper on illicit drugs, the development of a drug economy and its consequences.
- Samuel Munzele Maimbo, World Bank Finance and Private Sector Unit, South Asia Region, June 2003 "The Hawala System in Afghanistan".
- Kenefick, Frank and Morgan, Larry, “Opium in Afghanistan: people and poppies, the good evil” , Afghanistan RAMP, Rebuilding Markets in Afghanistan, by Chemonics International Inc. for US Agency For International Development/Kabul, February 5, 2004.
- Pain, Adam, “The Impact of the Opium Poppy Economy on Household Livelihoods: Evidence from the Wakhan Corridor and Khustak Valley in Badakhshan” , a study for the Aga Kahn Development Network, Badakhshan Programme funded by GTZ, January, 2004. Evaluates the effects of the opium economy on the livelihood in Afghanistan.
- UN Office on Drugs and Crimes, Strategic Study #1, June (1998): “An Analysis of the Process of Expansion of Opium Cultivation to New Districts in Afghanistan”. Seeks to explore the socio- economic processes that have facilitated the expansion of opium poppy cultivation into new areas of cultivation in Afghanistan.
- UN Office on Drugs and Crimes, preliminary Strategic Study #3, January 1999. Examines ”The Role of Opium as an Informal Credit” in Afghanistan.
- UN Office on Drugs and Crimes, Strategic Study #4, June 1999. Examines “Access to Labour: The Role of Opium in the Livelihood Strategies of Itinerant Harvesters Working in Helmand Province, Afghanistan”.
- UN Office on Drugs and Crimes, Strategic Study #2, October 1998. This study of “The Dynamics of the Farmgate Opium Trade and the Coping Strategies of Opium Traders” explores the market structure of the farmgate opium trade. The strategies traders envisage undertaking in response to UNODC’s Afghanistan Programme are also studied.
- UN Office on Drugs and Crimes (Kabul) report “Afghanistan Annual Opium Survey 2003”.
- UN Office on Drugs and Crimes (Kabul) “Afghanistan Farmers’ Intentions Survey 2003/2004”.
|Strategies to Alternative Development
- Dr. Nancy Lubin, Alex Kaits, and Igor Barsegian, “Narcotics Interdiction in Afghanistan and Central Asia: Challenges for International Assistance” , published by the Central Eurasian Project of the Open Society Institute and Network Women’s Program, (2002). This paper discusses the counter-narcotics efforts by the United States and the UN in Central Asia and Afghanistan, the societal effects of drug trafficking, and recommendations for combating these problems.
- Aga Kahn Foundation, “Badakhshan Province: Suggestions for an Area Development based Counter-narcotics strategy” , April 2004. Aghan Kahn Development Network's recent strategy paper on an area development based approach to counter narcotics in Badakhshan, which synthesizes many of the experiences and lessons learned from the programmes so far.
- Mansfield, David, “Coping Strategies, Accumulated Wealth and Shifting Markets: The Story of Opium Poppy Cultivation in Badakhshan 2000-2003” , A Report for the Agha Khan Development Network, January 2004. Explores the causes for the extended opium cultivation within Badkakshan over the last 3 years.
- Mansfield, David, “Alternative Development in Afghanistan: The Failure of Quid Pro Quo”, paper prepared for the International Conference on the Role of Alternative Development in Drug Control and Development Cooperation, Feldafing/Munic, Germany, January, 2002. Explores the conditions for a sustainable reduction in opium cultivation in Afghanistan and taking into account the experiences from alternative development and other source countries.
- UN Office on Drugs and Crimes, Alternative Development Strategic Study #6, June 2000, assesses “The Role of Women in Opium Poppy Cultivation in Afghanistan”.
|The Opium Trail: Drug Trafficking
- The International Crisis Group, Asia Report N° 25: “Central Asia: Drugs and Conflict” , 26 November, 2001 offers a description of drug trade, its effects and measures to combat drug trafficking.
- The report “Illicit drugs situation in the regions neighboring Afghanistan and the response of the ODCCCP” (October 2002) brings up the illicit drug situation trends observed and drug control operations.
- “Opiate smuggling routes from Afghanistan to Europe and Asia” is an article written by Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy, in Jane’s Intelligence Review Vol. 15 No. 03, March 2003, p. 32-35.
- Transnational Institute, Drugs & Conflict nr. 9, December 2003 “Drugs and Conflict in Burma (Myanmar): Dilemma for Policy Responses” , examines the dilemma for policy responses while dealing with conflict and drugs in Myanmar.
- Trocki, C. “Opium, Empire and the Global Political Economy”, Asia’s Transformations Series, London, New York, Routhledge, (1999)
- U.S. Dept of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, 2001, “Opium poppy cultivation and heroin processing in South East Asia”. This site goes into detail when describing the methods of opium cultivation and processing.
|Links to organizations and Internet Resources
- International Narcotics Control Board.
- The European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction
- DEA - U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration
- UN Office on Drugs and Crimes (UNODC) Publications
UNODC provides extensive resources on drugs highlighting Alternative Development, Drug Abuse, Demand Reduction, and Drug Supply Reduction among other subjects.
- Publications from UN Office on Drugs and Crimes (UNODC) in Pakistan
- Drug Policy Alliance is the leading organization working to broaden the public debate on drug policy and to promote realistic alternatives to the war on drugs based on science, compassion, health and human rights. Its website offers insights in different subject relating to drugs and policies around the world.
- Geopium is a French resource site, which is offered by Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy, containing articles on opium.
- RFE/RL Iran Report
- REF/RL Afghanistan Report
- A. William Samii, "Drug Abuse: Iran's 'Thorniest Problem,'" Brown Journal of World Affairs, (Winter/Spring 2003).
- A. William Samii and Charles Recknagel, "Iran's 'War' on Drugs," Transnational Organized Crime, v. 5, n. 2 (Summer 1999).