Copyright Notice

Copyright © IRIN 2013. All rights reserved. None of the materials provided on this web site may be used, reproduced or transmitted, in whole or in part, in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or the use of any information storage and retrieval system, except as provided for in the Terms and Conditions of Use, or with permission in writing from IRIN.

To request such permission and for further enquiries, please contact IRIN Director, e-mail: , telephone +254 207 622147 or fax: +254 207 622129.

Terms and Conditions of Use

The use of this web site constitutes agreement with the following terms and conditions:

(a) The Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN), the humanitarian news and analysis service of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, maintains this web site (the “Site”) as a courtesy to those who may choose to access the Site (“Users”). The information presented herein is for informative purposes only. IRIN grants permission to Users to visit the Site and to download and copy the information, documents and materials (collectively, “Materials”) from the Site for the User’s personal, non-commercial use, without any right to resell or redistribute them or to compile or create derivative works therefrom, subject to the terms and conditions outlined below, and also subject to more specific restrictions that may apply to specific Material within this Site. IRIN Materials in any media may not be sold, exchanged or syndicated for gain in any way without written agreement from IRIN.

(b) The reproduction of unaltered IRIN material, with attribution (see below), and for non-commercial purposes is permitted subject to these supplementary terms and conditions:

- Republication of IRIN Materials in newspapers and magazines, media-related and other non-subscription web sites is permitted, with proper attribution (see below).
- Contact us () to enquire about any other commercial use.

- The source, IRIN, must be clearly displayed or spoken (for radio material)
- IRIN Materials reposted on other web sites or Internet services should be accompanied by an active URL link to the IRIN home page ( or to a relevant page of the IRIN Site.

- All extracts from IRIN Materials must be appropriately sourced to IRIN.
- Quotations should be attributed to their original source as well (example: speaking to IRIN, General Samuel said, " ...quotation…")
- Our preferred longer form for attribution is "the humanitarian news and analysis service, IRIN". Short form: "IRIN news service".

- Materials of other copyright holders appearing on the IRIN website (eg photos) cannot be republished without the permission of the original copyright holder.

- IRIN films/documentaries may be re-broadcast unaltered, with proper attribution.
- IRIN films/documentaries cannot be translated or subtitled in another language without written permission from IRIN.
- Requests for video footage or other enquiries should be sent to

- These terms and conditions apply to all IRIN Materials, including photos. For further enquiries about republication of IRIN photos, contact

- If you do republish IRIN Materials, we would appreciate receiving links, samples and/or notifications. This assists us in attracting financial support and maintaining a free service.

- For further information or clarification, please contact IRIN at

(c) IRIN administers this Site. All Material on this Site from IRIN appears subject to the present Terms and Conditions.

(d) Unless expressly stated otherwise, the findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed in the Materials on this Site do not necessarily represent the views of the United Nations or its Member States.


Materials provided on this Site are provided “as is”, without warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including, without limitation, warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose and non-infringement. IRIN specifically does not make any warranties or representations as to the accuracy or completeness of any such Materials. IRIN frequently adds, changes, improves or updates the Materials on this Site without notice.

Under no circumstances shall IRIN be liable for any loss, damage, liability or expense incurred or suffered that is claimed to have resulted from the use of this Site, including, without limitation, any fault, error, omission, interruption or delay with respect thereto.

The use of this Site is at the User’s sole risk. Under no circumstances, including but not limited to negligence, shall IRIN or its affiliates be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special or consequential damages, even if IRIN has been advised of the possibility of such damages. The User specifically acknowledges and agrees that IRIN is not liable for any conduct of any User.

This site may contain advice, opinions and statements of various information providers. IRIN does not represent or endorse the accuracy or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other information provided by any information provider, any User of this Site or any other person or entity. Reliance upon any such advice, opinion, statement, or other information shall also be at the User’s own risk. Neither IRIN nor its affiliates, nor any of their respective agents, employees, information providers or content providers, shall be liable to any User or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error, omission, interruption, deletion, defect, alteration of or use of any content herein, or for its timeliness or completeness, nor shall they be liable for any failure of performance, computer virus or communication line failure, regardless of cause, or for any damages resulting therefrom.

As a condition of use of this Site, the User agrees to indemnify IRIN and its affiliates from and against any and all actions, claims, losses, damages, liabilities and expenses (including reasonable attorneys’ fees) arising out of the User’s use of this Site, including, without limitation, any claims alleging facts that if true would constitute a breach by the User of these Terms and Conditions. If the User is dissatisfied with any Material on this Site or with any of its Terms and Conditions of Use, the User’s sole and exclusive remedy is to discontinue using the Site.

This Site may contain links and references to third-party web sites. The linked sites are not under the control of IRIN, and IRIN is not responsible for the content of any linked site or any link contained in a linked site. IRIN provides these links only as a convenience, and the inclusion of a link or reference does not imply the endorsement of the linked site by IRIN or by the United Nations.

If this Site contains bulletin boards, chat rooms, access to mailing lists or other message or communication facilities (collectively, “Forums”), the User agrees to use the Forums only to send and receive messages and materials that are proper and related to the particular Forum. By way of example and not as a limitation, the User agrees that when using a Forum, he or she shall not do any of the following:

  1. Defame, abuse, harass, stalk, threaten or otherwise violate the legal rights (such as rights of privacy and publicity) of others;
  2. Publish, post, distribute or disseminate any defamatory, infringing, obscene, indecent or unlawful material or information;
  3. Upload or attach files that contain software or other material protected by intellectual property laws (or by rights of privacy and publicity) unless the User owns or controls the rights thereto or has received all consents therefor as may be required by law;
  4. Upload or attach files that contain viruses, corrupted files or any other similar software or programs that may damage the operation of another’s computer;
  5. Delete any author attributions, legal notices or proprietary designations or labels in any file that is uploaded;
  6. Falsify the origin or source of software or other material contained in a file that is uploaded;
  7. Advertise or offer to sell any goods or services, or conduct or forward surveys, contests or chain letters, or download any file posted by another user of a Forum that the User knows, or reasonably should know, cannot be legally distributed in such manner.

The User acknowledges that all Forums and discussion groups are public and not private communications. Further, the User acknowledges that chats, postings, conferences, e-mails and other communications by other Users are not endorsed by IRIN or the United Nations, and that such communications shall not be considered to have been reviewed, screened or approved by IRIN. IRIN reserves the right to remove, for any reason and without notice, any content of the Forums received from Users, including, without limitation, e-mail and bulletin board postings.

Preservation of immunities

Nothing herein shall constitute or be considered to be a limitation upon or a waiver of the privileges and immunities of the United Nations, which are specifically reserved.


IRIN reserves its exclusive right in its sole discretion to alter, limit or discontinue the Site or any Materials in any respect. IRIN shall have no obligation to take the needs of any User into consideration in connection therewith.

IRIN reserves the right to deny in its sole discretion any user access to this Site or any portion thereof without notice. No waiver by IRIN of any provision of these Terms and Conditions shall be binding except as set forth in writing and signed by its duly authorized representative.

Privacy notice

By accessing this site, certain information about the User, such as Internet protocol (IP) addresses, navigation through the Site, the software used and the time spent, along with other similar information, will be stored on IRIN servers. These will not specifically identify the User. The information will be used internally only for web site traffic analysis. If the User provides unique identifying information, such as name, address and other information on forms stored on this Site, such information will be used only for IRIN service subscription and/or statistical purposes and will not be published for general access. IRIN, however, assumes no responsibility for the security of this information.

Authorship disclaimer

The Material on this Site comes to you via IRIN, the humanitarian news and analysis service of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. The opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect those of the United Nations or its Member States.

Links disclaimer

Links to other Internet addresses may be accessible on United Nations sites. Such external Internet addresses contain information created, published, maintained, or otherwise posted by institutions or organizations independent of the United Nations. The United Nations does not control, endorse, or approve these external Internet addresses or any of the statements made therein, and does not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy, timeliness, or correct sequencing of information located at such addresses. Use of any information obtained from such addresses is voluntary, and reliance on it should only be undertaken after an independent review of its accuracy, completeness, efficacy, and timeliness. Reference therein to any specific commercial products, process, policies, political campaigns or services by trade name, trademark, service mark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommendation, or any other form of approval by the United Nations.