IRIN Web Special on female genital mutilation
International Human Rights Instruments
• 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Art 25.
• 1962 Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage and Registration of Marriages.
• 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Art 7, 18.
• 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Art.12.
• 1981 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), Art. 2, 5.
• 1999 General Recommendation No. 24 (20th session, CEDAW)
• 1981 UN Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief protects. General Assembly Resolution 36/55, 25 January 1981
• 1984 Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, 1465 UNTS 85
• 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), A/RES/44/25 Art.19, 37, 24.
• 1993 Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women G.A. res. 48/104, 48 U.N.
GAOR Supp. (No. 49) at 217, U.N. Doc. A/48/49.
• 2003 The declaration for the elimination of the FGM, Cairo.
• Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, Female
Circumcision, General Recommendation no. 14, Ninth session, UN Document A/45/38.1990
Regional human rights instruments
• 1981 African [Banjul] Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, OAU. Art 4, 5, 16, 18.
• 1990 African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, adopted by the Organization of African Unity. Art.3, 14, 21.
• 1999 Ouagadougou Declaration of the Regional Workshop on the Fight against Female Genital Mutilation in the Member
• 1998 The Banjul Declaration, Inter-African committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children and Gambian committee on Traditional Practices (GAMCOTRAP).
• 2003 Maputo, Mozambique Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa
• 1950 European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
• 1987 European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment, 27 International Legal Materials (1988) 1152
• 2001 Female genital mutilation. Resolution 1247 Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
• 2001 Resolution on Female Genital Mutilation, European Parliament. (2001.2035(INI).
National Law against FGM
• Australia Prohibition of female genital mutilation act, New South Wales.
• Belgium, Law of 28 December 2000 on the criminal protection of minors [Article 29].
• Canada Section 268, Criminal Code, 1997.
• France Decree No. 95-1000 of 6 September 1995 setting forth the Code of Medical Ethics [Article 41].
• Spain Art 149 Penal Code
• Sweden Law No. 316 of 27 May 1982 prohibiting female circumcision.
• United Kingdom Prohibition of Female Circumcision Act 1985,
• United States Criminalisation of Female Genital Mutilation Act (1996)
• Ethiopia Constitution Of The Democratic Republic Of Ethiopia, 1994 [Art 35].
• Ghana An Act (484 Of 1994) To Amend The Criminal Code, 1960 (Act 29) To Include In The Code The Offence Of Female Circumcisions And For Connected Purposes, 1994.
• Guinea Decree No. D/96/205/Prg/Sgg 1996 Promulgating The Code Of Medical Deontology [Art.40].
• Ivory Coast Law No. 98-757 1998 on the repression of certain forms of violence against women.
• Kenya Children’s Act Part II, 14. Protection from harmful cultural rites.
• Madagascar Decree No. 98-945 1998 Setting Forth The Code Of Medical Ethics [Art. 39].
• Senegal Law No. 99-05 1999 Amending Various Provisions Of The Penal Code [Art. 2].
• South Africa Promotion Of Equality And Prevention Of Unfair Discrimination (Act No. 4 Of 2000) [Section 8].
• Tanzania Sexual Offences Special Provisions (Act No. 4 Of 1998),[Section 21].
• Togo Law No. 98-016 -1998 Prohibiting Female Genital Mutilation In Togo.
• Uganda The Children Statute 1996 (Statute No. 6 Of 1996) [Section 8].
• Female Genital Mutilation: A Report to the Attorney-General, prepared by the Family Law Council June 1994 (Australia).
• Abbie J. Chessler, Justifying the Unjustifiable: Rite v. Wrong, 45 Buffalo L. Rev. 555 (1997).
• Doriane Lambelet Coleman, The Seattle Compromise: Multicultural Sensitivity and Americanization, 47 DUKE L.J. 717, 739 (1998).
• Dena S. Davis. Male and Female Genital Alteration: A Collision Course with the Law? 11 Health Matrix: Journal of Law-Medicine 487 (2001).
• Christine Mason. Exorcising excision: medico-legal issues arising from male and female genital surgery in Australia, 9 J Law Med 58 (2001).
• Center for Reproductive Rights: “Legislation on Female Genital Mutilation in the United States” 2000.
• Center of Reproductive Rights: “Female Genital Mutilation: A Matter of Human Rights”
• Zara Spencer “The Criminalisation Of Female Genital Mutilation In Queensland”.
• FGM Network References about National and International Legislation on FGM
• IPU - Legislation and other national provisions
• Center of Reproductive Rights Female Genital Mutilation: A Matter of Human Rights
• Global Health Council - FGM: Outlawed, Not Eradicated
• Global Health Council - Sudan Government to Ban FGM
• Global Health Council - Tougher Laws for FGM
• 1995 Beijing Fourth UN World Conference on Women.
• Further Actions and Initiatives to Implement the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action.
• 1988 Mogadishu, Somalia. Female circumcision: strategies to bring about change: proceedings of the International seminar on female circumcision.
• 1998 European Union Committee of the Regions. Second study conference on female genital mutilation in Europe.
• 1997 Dakar, Senegal Fourth Regional Conference/General Assembly of the Inter African Committee on traditional Practices affecting the health of women and children - IAC.
• 1999 Declaration and Plan of Action of the First Ministerial Conference on Human Rights in Africa, Organization of African Unity,
• 2000 Arusha Declaration on Harmful Traditional Practices,
• 2004 Nairobi “ International Conference on female genital mutilation”.
• 2005 Djibouti Sub-Regional Conference on the Elimination of Female Genital Mutilation "Towards a political and religious consensus against FGM"
Women International News Network (WIN-News)
• WHO: Female Genital Mutilation Programmes to Date: What Works and What Doesn’t
• WHO: The prevention and the management of the health complications Policy guidelines for nurses and midwives
• World Medical Association. Statement on Condemnation of Female Genital Mutilation, Adopted by the 45th World Medical Assembly, Budapest, Hungary, October 1993.
• American Medical Association, Council on Scientific Affairs, Report 5 (I-94): Female Genital Mutilation, Chicago, 1994.
• Committee on Medical Ethics. Guidance for doctors approached by victims of female genital mutilation. London: British Medical Association, 1996.
• Committee on Bioethics, American Academy of Pediatrics. Female Genital Mutilation (RE9749). Pediatrics 1998; 102(1): 153-156.
• American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Female Circumcision/Female Genital Mutilation (FC/FGM) Fact Sheet.
• Pierrette Herzberger-Fofana Les Mutilations Génitales Féminines (MGF)
• Henriette Kouyaté Excision et mouvements feminins
United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM)
UNIFEM supports CEDAW to eradicate FGM.
World Health Organization (WHO)
Includes fact sheets, information packets and other publications.
UN Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW)
Workshops, forums, colloquiums, meetings, documentation and a news archive.
United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
UNFPA addresses the practice of FGM/FGC not only because it is a violation of women’s fundamental human rights. An approach into UNFPA Programs.
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
UNICEF takes action against FGM because is a violation of children’s right.
CEDAW. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
States Latest Reports to CEDAW and country-specific information for visitors about legislative options and instruments.
Amnesty International is an international NGO concerned with the human rights implications of FGM to eradicate violence against women.
Commission pour l’Abolition des Mutilations Sexuelles (CAMPS)
A Senegalese NGO specialised in sexual mutilation. Website is available only in French.
Center for Reproductive Law and Policy (CRLP)
CRLP is dedicated to promoting women’s equality worldwide by guaranteeing reproductive rights as human rights. Website provides legal information about FGM.
Equality Now is an international organisation which works for the protection and promotion of the human rights of women around the world. In 1997, it launched AWAKEN to support organisations and individual activists working to stop FGM. The website is available in English, French, Spanish and Arabic.
Female Genital Mutilation Education and Networking Project
FGM Network disseminates on-line and off-line material related to FGM.
Articles and speeches about FGM are available on the Feminist.org website.
FORWARD - Foundation for Women's Health, Research and Development
Dedicated to serving the health and human rights needs of African females in the UK and Africa, FORWARD promotes action to stop harmful traditional practices, such as FGM, and early and forced marriages.
GTZ- Promotion of Initiatives to Eradicate Female Genital Mutilation
Supra-regional project funded by the German Ministry of Cooperation and Development and implemented by the German development agency (GTZ).
Report in English, French and German are available.
Women’s Group for the abolition of FGM and other harmful practices affecting the health of women and children.
International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF)
IPPF is a non-governmental provider and advocate of sexual and reproductive health and rights.
Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)
The IPU is the international organisation of Parliaments of sovereign States. IPU organised a panel discussion on the topic, "Violence against women: Female genital mutilation" during its 106th Conference (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, September 2001). Texts on national policies and legislation, a list of international treaties and resolutions to abolish FGM, available for downloading.
The Inter-African Committee (IAC) is an NGO that fights to combat harmful practices, including FGM.
International Center for Reproductive Health (ICRH)- European Network for the Prevention of FGM
The ICRH was established in 1994 in response to the International Conference on Population and Development (Cairo, 1994). Its website is a good source of information on FGM among migrants in Europe.
Johns Hopkins University Center for Communication Programs, Media/Materials Clearinghouse M/MC
JHU/CCP has developed projects based on systematic needs assessments and clear strategies for positioning and presenting the benefits of health interventions to appropriate audiences. The website provides materials and information about FGM.
Organisation which works in Burkina Faso to eradicate FGM
National Organization of Circumcision Information Resource Centers (NOCIRC)
NOCIRC is an educational non-profit organisation committed to securing the birthright of males and females (and babies) to keep their sex organs intact. It has an education project on circumcision, genital mutilation and genital integrity.
PATH - Program for Appropriate technology in Health
Path's mission is to improve health, especially the health of women and children. An emphasis is placed on improving the quality of reproductive health services and on preventing and reducing the impact of widespread communicable diseases. Path is involved in efforts to end FGM.
RAINBO- Research, Action and Information Network for Bodily Integrity of Women.
RAINBO is an African-led, international non-governmental organisation working on issues of women's empowerment, gender, reproductive health, sexual autonomy and freedom from violence and specifically strives to enhance global efforts to eliminate the practice of female circumcision / FGM.
Reproductive Health Outlook (RHO)
RHO is especially designed for reproductive health program managers and decision makers working in developing countries. The website provides up-to-date summaries of research findings, program experience and clinical guidelines related to key reproductive health topics, as well as analyses of policy and program implications.
An international campaign to eradicate FGM.
It is a non-profit NGO incorporated in the United States and based in Senegal, focused on empowering villagers to take charge of their own development and participate fully in society. Tostan has a programme to eradicate FGM in the region of Thiens.
The Hesperian Foundation
Union Nationale des Femmes de Djibouti (UNFD)
Global Health Council
The Global Health Council, formerly the National Council of International Health, is a US-based, non-profit membership organisation.
Other references sites:
- STOP FGM
Books and documents, official documents.
- Amnesty International Bibliography
Large list of reports, papers and documents - specialised in FGM.
- FGM Network References
Website includes FGM resources and discussion boards on Africa and Middle East.
GAMS bibliography in English on harmful traditional practices affecting the health of women and
children, especially excision.
- CAMPS articles in French
This website informs reader about FGM with articles and reports from French speaking
A collection of books, videos, articles, and medical and legal documents informs visitors about
all aspects of FGM.